Monday, June 17, 2013

1306.3291 (S. K. Tiwari et al.)

Particle production in Ultra-relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions : A
Statistical-Thermal Model Review

S. K. Tiwari, C. P. Singh
The current status of various thermal and statistical descriptions of particle production in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions experiments is presented in detail. We discuss the formulation of various types of thermal models of a hot and dense hadron gas (HG) and the methods incorporated in implementing the interactions between hadrons. We first obtain the parametrizations of center-of-mass energy ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) in terms of temperature ($T$) and baryon chemical potential ($\mu_B$) obtained by analyzing the particle ratios at the freeze-out over a broad energy range from the lowest Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) energy to the highest Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) energies. The results of various thermal models together with the experimental results for the various ratios of particles are then compared. We have derived some new universal conditions emerging at the chemical freeze-out of HG fireball which demonstrate the independence with respect to the energy as well as the structure of the nuclei used in the collision. Further, we perform the calculation of various transport properties of HG such as shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio ($\eta/s$) etc. using thermal model and compare with the results of other models. We also present the calculation of the rapidity as well as transverse mass spectra of various hadrons in the thermal HG model. The purpose of this review article is to organize and summarize the experimental data obtained in various experiments with heavy-ion collisions and then to examine and analyze them using thermal models so that a firm conclusion regarding the formation of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) can be obtained.
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